How “Smart” are Japanese Cities? An Empirical Investigation of Infrastructures and Governmental Programs in Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka and Kyoto
Can cities be smart? In this article we define what a smart city is and formulate categories and indicators of smart and/or informational cities. Based on theses measures, we investigate four Japanese cities as case studies that appear to be highly developed modern metropolises. We focus on infrastructures essential for an informational city as base for a ubiquitous, smart (in a narrow sense), creative, and knowledge city. We measure the level of “smartness” or “informativeness” for each city and create a ranking. Finally, as essential preconditions for a successful development of smart cities, we present political initiatives in Japan.